From what I have seen, it is less that extroverts view themeselves as superior and more that the systems, processes and "scripts" that we live by in the workplace are quite often naturally tilted in favour of extroverts.
One example from my previous workplace related to large training workshops, which we held on a regular basis. The people designing the agenda of these workshops were invariably extroverts, simply because they most enjoyed the process of deciding how large groups should function. As a result, the activity plan for the workshop inevitably filled up every last second of time with group work, plenary feedback, presentations and so forth. No time whatsoever was devoted to introspection, planning and reflection.
When finally I mustered the resolve to request to revisit these plans and introduce more time for people with a more introverted leaning to get reflection time, my extroverted colleagues expressed genuine puzzlement that their approach, of creating as much friction of minds bumping together as possible, was not universally understood as the most efficient way to get things done.
When seen from an introvert's perspective the team thankfully made a big effort to insert more reflection time into future workshops, with great results.
Often, I think that the challenge is banding together to unravel an existing cultural bias rather than hostility or judgement. This is just one introvert's opinion though.